- The big news this year is the inauguration in April by President Juscelino Kubitschek of the country’s new federal capital, Brasília.

- In October, Jânio Quadros is elected the first Brazilian president to govern from the new capital, with over 5.6 million votes (48% of the electorate).

- In July, Tião Medonho’s gang carries out its famous train robbery, but is captured shortly afterwards.

- João Gilberto releases the record O amor, o sorriso e a flor (Love, the smile and the flower) confirming Bossa Nova’s success in the country.

- In the theater, Oduvaldo Vianna Filho (Vianinha) and Carlos Lira produce A Mais-Valia vai acabar, seu Edgar, their first partnership at the UNE’s (National Union of Students) future Center for Popular Culture (CPC).

- Clarice Lispector publishes her book of stories Laços de Família (Family Ties)