- The political situation worsens. In January, the country returns to the presidential system. The act of Congress follows a plebiscite in which 9 million people vote for the return of the presidential system. Jango asks Congress to declare a 30-day state of siege, but is refused.

- In the Northeast, Paulo Freire develops his method for teaching mass literacy.

- Jorge Ben releases his first record, Mas que nada.

- In cinema, Nelson Pereira dos Santos innovates with his revolutionary Vidas Secas (Dry Lives).