- On April 1st. President João Goulart is deposed in a military coup. The president of the House of Representatives, Ranieri Mazzilli, takes over as head of the government.

- On April 15th, Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco assumes the presidency and a list of 72 names stripped of their political rights is published, among which are parliamentary deputies and Army officials loyal to ex-President João Goulart, who is exiled from the country.

- The film Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol (God and the Devil in the Land of the Sun) by Glauber Rocha is released, becoming a landmark of Brazilian cinema.

- A series of shows called the Fino da Bossa (The Best of Bossa) begins in São Paulo

- In December, the musical show Opinião premieres in Rio de Janeiro, with Nara Leão, Zé Ketti and João do Vale.

- French actress Brigitte Bardot spends the summer at a beach in the village of Búzios, near Rio.